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Want to learn about discrimination against marginalised communities in Ghana, Cameroon? See this report

To help our readers understand the various forms of discrimination and exploitation they face and emphasise the need for further research and collaborative action to address these issues, we have prepared a PowerPoint Presentation based on a field visit to the University of Ghana to help understand the condition of CDWDs, the steps being taken and the views of the various stakeholders and experts. 

The report begins by introducing the concept of “Castes of Descendants of Wrongdoers” (CDWDs) and their prevalence in Ghana and Cameroon. It then delves into specific examples of discrimination faced by these communities in both countries.


Trokosi system: This traditional practice enslaves young girls as atonement for perceived wrongdoings. The team visited the Blame Library, watched a BBC documentary and found various articles on the trokosi, and believe the library has valuable resources for understanding this issue.

Kayayei women: These female porters face poverty and social stigma due to their occupation.

Other marginalised groups: The report mentions the DIPO practice, field lords, manual scavenging, pawn system, and the Mbororo community's struggles with access to resources like birth certificates.


Ngoda community: Forced to dispose of animal carcasses and ostracised by the dominant Vaivai community.

Mbororo community: Nomadic pastoralists facing challenges of land access and integration.

Other marginalised groups: The report mentions the Baka community and the “Casa” exploitation practice.

Key Findings:

Traditional slavery systems: Mme Bouba, a Commissioner at the National Commission on Human Rights and Freedoms (CNHRC), acknowledges the connection between CDWD practices and traditional forms of slavery.

Need for further research: The report calls for deeper engagement and historical analysis to understand the specific characteristics of each community and their connection to CDWD or indigenous identities.

Collaboration opportunities: Potential collaborators include Prof. Suleiman from the University of Ghana, Aminatu Noah, CESOQUAR, ALPC , CNHRC, UN Women and .


Organise webinars: Raise awareness about CDWDs through regional webinars featuring researchers and community representatives.

Conduct a study on Ngoda: Investigate the specific challenges faced by this community and advocate for their rights.

Engage with NHRC: Provide suggestions to include CDWDs in the commission's next plan and ensure their rights are protected.

Connect with relevant networks and NGOs: Partner with organisations working on similar issues to amplify the voices of marginalised communities and advocate for systemic change.

The full presentation follows:


  1. Indeed, unraveling more about the marginalised and discriminated against requires more work. Local stakeholders need to work on diligently detecting and documenting subtle social and traditional norms often ignored and labelled normal but perpetuate slavery and discrimination, for action.

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